Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Engineering - Anaerobic Digestion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Engineering - Anaerobic Digestion - Essay Example Leading in the Go Green, campaign is biogas. Biogas is defined as a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane gas, which is sourced from the breakdown of organic matter, usually waste, in a process referred to as anaerobic digestion. The process is a method by which raw biogas is converted into cleaner, efficient and easier used energy sources. Planning a biogas plant Designing a biogas plant is an engineering problem that has to be approached by considering all the operational, economic, environmental and sustainability conditions. Before designing the biogas plant in the Middle East, the engineer has to first engage in plans, which are conceptualized ideas, but not suited for any one given application. In planning, some of the considerations to look into include the naturally occurring resources, agricultural development, social conventions, customer energy requirements and possible construction site. Careful planning is necessary to eliminate present and cumulative or multiplier effec ts on the design. As a biogas digester (production unit) is a costly investment, it cannot be simply set up as a temporary station. Design The design of the biogas unit is dependent on the conditions a given society poses to the objective. A biogas unit is affected by numerous conditions such as the environmental conditions, design and socio-economic conduct of the people of that region. The choice of the design is determined by the conditions of the chosen site. Designing a biogas unit in the Middle East is a generalized idea, to come up with a perfect unit, the engineer has to analyse the conditions and challenges a given site provides. Just as any system, the biogas production plat is affected by the input and any additional disturbances, which are reflected in the output (which in our case is biogas). Physical conditions Physical conditions are one of the most influential factors when it comes to designing and setting up a biogas digester. Since the anaerobic process of biogas p roduction is quite sensitive to temperature, then care should be taken in considering the climate of a given locale. Other conditions apart from the climate of a location that may be put to test include the soil conditions, the feedstock or substrate for digestion, and the available building material. The design considerations in terms of the substrate and size of the digester are determined by the consumers as well as the available building material. Insulation of the digester happens to be the main consideration in setting up the plant. The anaerobic process operates at temperatures of between 30 and 60 C. keeping the temperature between these limits is of great necessity to ensure that the bacteria involved in the digestion process lives, for high or low temperature leads to their death. Skills and labour Another requirement in designing is skills and labour. The technology involved in setting up a biogas plant is sophisticated and requires skills from both the constructors and d esigners. The complexity of the design usually dictates the type and level of skill involved in the construction process. Depending on the size, distance and costs, the biogas digester may be prefabricated or made in-situ. Standardization Although plants may be designed to fit the needs of a given consumer, there is a need for standardizing the design.